Jain Numerology

Numbers are ubiquotous. Be it Astronomy, Finance, Biology, Chemistry, Physics or any other facet of life numbers are integral to our existence. In fact, the 4th Aagam (holy Jain scripture), Samavayangasuttam, has a unique heterogenous theme in which it describes various aspects of Jain philosophy through various divisions and numerical order.

Let’s learn more about Jainism through Numbers.


Zero essentially implies nothing. It is believed that Zero was invented in India by Aryabhatta, a mathematician. He used place value system as a place holder for the powers of 10.

Within the Jain universe (Loka), there is no absolute emptiness. Either consciousness (Jiva) or non-consciousness (Ajiva) exists within the entire Loka. In my view, anything remotely associated with 0 (nothing) is Aloka (i.e. the vast, infinite space beyond the Loka) which comprises only Akash (space). There is nothing else in this region (no Jiva or Ajiva).


A perpetual curiosity all humans have had since eons is Who Am I (Kohum)? A profound response to this enigmatic thought is Sohum (I Am That), meaning I am Consciousness. This implies that for each living entity, their true and distinct identity is that they are an independent consciousness. In the Upanishadas, there is a Sanskrit expression “Neti Neti” which means “neither this, nor that”. This concurs with the Jain philosophy that I am neither the mind, nor the body. I am neither the senses (touch, taste, smell, eyesight or sound), nor the natural elements (earth, water, fire, air). I am that one unique formless soul, a unique individual consciousness.

Jainism is not a monetheistic philosophy (It does not believe in one creator, all powerful God). On a the contrary, it believes that each living entity has the potential to achieve liberation (Siddha Shila – region of infinite bliss, knowledge, energy; can think of this as the ultimate heaven. This concept of heaven should not be confused as Devloka which is a region where angels reside amidst supernatural powers and comfort).

A fascinating interpretation of the definition of knowledge in Jain philosophy is “know one, know all; know all, know one“. To possess infinite knowledge implies that to know something in its entirety i.e. to know every aspect of an item or object, including every aspect of what it is not.

Let’s look some at other associations with the number 1:
– The first Aagam is Ācārānga Sutra
– Each living entity is an individual single soul. When Jains mention that soul is “one” it implies that the consciousness of all living beings (irrespective of their realm i.e. Gods, hellish beings, plants, animals or humans) is similar
– The first tirthankar of this time cycle was Lord Ādināth


One of the basic fundamental tenets of Jainism is the philosophy of dualism. Whilst the Cartesian dualism refers to the dualism of mind and matter, the Jain dualism is that of Soul and Matter. Since time immemorial, each and every soul has been entwined with matter (i.e. possessing a physical body, be it that of 1 sense, 2 senses, 3 senses, 4 senses or 5 senses which can be with mind or without mind). The essence of life is to overcome the continual cycle of birth and rebirth in various realms by getting rid of the karmas and freeing our selves from the dualism and for the soul to attain liberation and remain in its own pure, everlasting bliss.

Karmas can be classified into two main broad categories: ghati (soul defiling) and aghati (non-destructive).

Knowledge can also be classified into two main broad categories: Paroksha (indirect) & Pratyaksha (direct). Pratyaksha means knowledge acquired through the power of the soul, for example intuition or being able to perceive things beyond the limits of the human senses or being able to read the mind of others. Paroksha means knowledge acquired through the mind and senses or through scriptures.

Bondage of karma occurs due to two main causes: rāg (attachment) and dwesh (hatred).


The three jewels of the Jain philosophy are Samyak Darshan (right faith), Samyak Gyana (right knowledge) and Samyak Charitra (right conduct). One can detach from one’s karma and attain liberation by understanding the true nature of the soul through the three jewels.

It is fascinating to note that Lord Mahaveer uttered three words (tripadi) i.e. Upanyei Va (Creation), Vighaneyi Va (Destruction) and Dhuveyi Va (Persistence) and his chief disciples (Ganadharas) understood the entire essence of the Jain philosophy and composed the entire scriptures on the basis of these three words. This suggests that these three words are so profound that with deep contemplation and intuition, the essence of life manifests and the path of liberation unfolds.

The Jain universe is segregated into three divisions: Upper Universe (Urdhva Loka), Middle Universe (Madhya Loka) and the Lower Universe (Adho Loka). The upper universe is where angels reside which is initself segregated into various heavens. The middle universe contains many worlds of which the world we live in is one of them. The lower universe is the hellish region which is segregated into 7 different regions with increasing intensity of pain and suffering.

The concept of three guptis (controlling the activity) of mind, body and speech is central to the Jain monks and laity. Karmas get binded to the soul through the activity of mind, body and speech and thus restraining or controlling the activities of mind, body and speech is essential to stop the influx of karmas and discard those that are bound to our soul.

There are three guna vratas (merit vows) within the anuvratas (vows of limited nature to be followed by the Jain lay followers). They are Dika vrata (vow of limiting the locus of one’s activity), Bhoga-upabhoga vrata (limiting use of items that can be repeatedly consumed e.g. clothes and consumed one time only e.g. food) and Anartha danda vrata (purposeless violence) e.g. plucking grass for no reason when out on a picnic or kicking a stone without reason whilst walking which may hurt an insect.

The three thorns (Śalya शल्य) are: (i) māyā (deceit) (ii) nidāna (hankering for wordly pleasures and fame) (iii) mithyātva (false belief)


The passions (kaṣāyas) are four-fold: (i) anger (krodha) (ii) conceit (māna) (iii) deceit (māyā) (iv) greed (lobha).

Four types of dhyāna (ध्यान, “concentration of mind”) are:
(i) ārta-dhyāna (the concentration of the mind on fulfilling worldly desires)
(ii) raudra-dhyāna (the concentration of thoughts on violent activities)
(iii) dharma-dhyāna (spiritual / auspicious concentration of the mind)
(iv) śukla-dhyāna (pure concentration eventually leading to steady, motionless concentration)

Four anchors of meditations are also described as follows:
(i) Pindastha Dhyāna (Meditation on Concrete Objects e.g. Idol of the Bhagwan)
(ii) Padastha Dhyāna (Meditation on Words e.g. prayers, mantras, etc)
(iii) Rupastha Dhyāna (Meditation on the form of the Jinas)
(iv) Rupatita Dhyāna (Meditation on the formless i.e. the Self, the Soul)

Four instincts are: (i) Food (ii) Fear (iii) Copulation (iv) Possessions

When karmas get bound to the soul, four characteristics of the karma occur as follows:
(i) Prakṛti (प्रकृति) which the nature or type of karma that is bound. Jains believe there are 8 types of karmas so which of these 8 gets bound to the soul
(ii) Pradeśa (प्रदेश) or quantity of space points refers to the quantity of karmic influx
(iii) Anubhava (अनुभव) refers to the intensity of the karmas i.e. whether it is mild or intense. It is the potency of the karmas on how it affects the soul
(iv) Sthiti (स्थिति) which means duration of the karmas

The four gatis (गति) which means realms of existence are: (i) Heavenly, celestial divine beings (ii) Hellish beings (iii) Human beings (iv) Plants and animals

For spiritual progress, one should seek shelter or refuge in 4 things:
(i) Arihant (souls who have destroyed their ghati karmas, attained kevelgyana and preaching the religion to the masses)
(ii) Siddha (all liberated souls)
(iii) Sadhu – All monks and nuns including Sadhus, Sadhvis, Upadhyaya and Acharyas in all the various parts of the universe
(iv) Kevali – the religion expounded by all those who have attained omniscience (kevalgyana)

There are four principal texts, Mūlasūtra (मूलसूत्र) which are:
(i) Dasvekalik Sutra (दशवैकालिक सूत्र)
(ii) Uttarādhyayana-Sūtra (उत्तराध्ययन-सूत्र)
(iii) Āvaśyaka Sutra(आवश्यक-सूत्र )
(iv) Piṇḍaniryukti (पिण्ड निर्युक्ति)


Jains revere to the five paramesthis: (i) Arihant (ii) Siddha (iii) Acharya (iv) Upadhyaya (v) Sadhus / Sadhvis. This is the basis of the Navkar mantra

The five main vows of the Jain philosophy are:
(i) Ahimsa (अहिंसा, non-violence)
(ii) Satya (सत्य, truthfulness)
(iii) Asteya (अस्तेय, not stealing)
(iv) Aparigraha (अपरिग्रह, non-acquisition)
(v) Brahmacarya (ब्रह्मचर्य, chaste living)

All livings beings have either or all of the following five senses: (i) Touch (ii) Taste (iii) Smell (iv) Sight (v) Hearing

Āśrava (आश्रव) – there are five avenues for the influx of karma as follows:
(i) Mithyātva (मिथ्यात्व): perversity, wrong belief, delusion, belief in wrong scriptures, gods and religion
(ii) Avirati (अविरति): non-abstinence i.e. not to protect all forms of living beings and not having control over senses and mind
(iii) Pramāda (प्रमाद) – carelessness i.e. lack of vigour or enthusiasm for spiritual activities, or in other words spiritual remissness.
(iv) Kaśāya (कशाय) – The four passions i.e. Anger, Ego, Deceit & Greed
(v) Yoga (योग) – activities of mind, speech and body lead to influx of karma. Auspicious activities lead to auspiciou influx of karma and inauspicious activites lead to inauspicious influx of karma

Samiti (समिति) refers to the “five kinds of carefulness” i.e.
(i) īryā (care whilst walking not to injure any living thing)
(ii) bhāṣā (care not to injure any one by speech)
(iii) eṣaṇā (care to eat only pure food)
(iv) ādānanikṣepana (care in regard to handling possessions)
(v) pratiṣṭhāpana or utsarga (care in regard to sanitation or discarding waste material).

Astikāya (अस्तिकाय): Jains believe that there are five substances in the entire universe can occupy more than one spatial point (prādeśa (प्रादेश)) which are as follows:
(i) Jīvāstikāya (जीवास्तिकाय) – consciousness
(ii) Pudgalāstikāya (पुद्गलस्तिकाय) – matter (energy)
(iii) Ākāśāstikāya (आकाशास्तिकाय) – provides spaces to itself and other substances.
(iv) Dharmāstikāya (धर्मास्तिकाय) – auxiliary cause of motion for living / non-living entities
(v) Adharmāstikāya (अधर्मास्तिकाय) – auxiliary cause of rest for living / non-living entities
Kāl (time) is another reality but not considered as an astikāya as it does not have spatial expansion.

There are 5 types of knowledge according to Jain epistemology:
(i) Matijñāna (मतिज्ञान) – sensory knowledge
(ii) Śrutajñāna (श्रुतज्ञान) – scriptural knowledge / knowledge that is heard
(iii) Avadhijñāna (अवधिज्ञान) – clairvoyant knowledge of physical objects
(iv) Manaḥparyayajñāna (मनःपर्ययज्ञान) – knowledge of mental thoughts of others
(v) Kevalajñāna (केवलज्ञान) – omniscience.


There are 6 Āvaśyaka (आवश्यक) essential duties prescribed for Jains:
(i) sāmāyika (सामायिक) – state of equanimity
(ii) caturviṃśati-stava (चतुर्विंशति स्तव) – adoration of the 24 Jain Tirthankaras
(iii) vandanaka (वन्दनक) – obeisance, respectful salutation
(iv) pratikramaṇa (प्रतिक्रमण) – repentance, expiation
(v) pratyākhyāna (प्रत्याख्यान) – renunciation of evil deeds e.g. through taking vows and resolutions
(vi) kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) – abandonment of the body through meditation and focusing on the soul

There are six leśyā (लेश्या) which refers to “soul-colors” (a psychic color varying according to the karma of the soul).
(i) Black “kṛṣṇaleśyā” that signifies most intense passionate state of the soul
(ii) Blue “nīlaleśyā” signifying highly passionate state of the soul
(iii) Grey “kāpotaleśyā”, which signifies a passionate state of the soul
(iv) Yellow “pītaleśyā” that signifies the lesser passionate state of the soul
(v) Lotus “padmaleśyā”, which is the least passionate state of the soul
(vi) White “śuklaleśyā”, which is the passion–free state of the soul.

Each upward and downward time cycle has 6 aras (आरा) or divisions analogous to spokes of the wheel.
(i) suṣamā-suṣamā (extremely happy)
(ii) suṣamā (happy)
(iii) suṣamā-duṣamā (more happy than unhappy)
(iv) duṣamā-suṣamā (more unhappy than happy)
(v) duṣamā (unhappy)
(vi) duṣamā-duṣamā (extremely unhappy)

Jains believe in six fundamental entities (Dravyas द्रव्य) in the entire universe.
(i) Jīvāstikāya (जीवास्तिकाय) – consciousness
(ii) Pudgalāstikāya (पुद्गलस्तिकाय) – matter (energy)
(iii) Ākāśāstikāya (आकाशास्तिकाय) – provides spaces to itself and other substances.
(iv) Dharmāstikāya (धर्मास्तिकाय) – auxiliary cause of motion for living / non-living entities
(v) Adharmāstikāya (अधर्मास्तिकाय) – auxiliary cause of rest for living / non-living entities
(vi) Kāl (काल) – time

In the first Āgam, Ācaranga Sutra, 6 fundamental truths have been revealed:
(i) Soul exists
(ii) It is eternal
(iii) It is the author of its own actions (karma)
(iv) It therefore bears the consequences of its own actions (karma)
(v) There is liberation (moksha)
(vi) There is a path to attain liberation and that it the true religion

There are 6 types of external austerities (बाह्य तप) and 6 types of internal austerities (अभ्यन्तर तप) as follows:
External (बाह्य तप):
(i) Anasana (अनशन) → periodical fasting
(ii) Avamōdarya (ઉણોદરી) → Ūna (ऊन) means less or deficient & Udara (उदर) means stomach →eating less than the capacity of the stomach
(iii) Vṛttisaṃksepa (वृत्तिसंक्सेप) → putting restrictions in regard to consumption of food
(iv) Rasa-parityaga (रस परित्याग) → renouncing foods that arouse passions (e.g. delicacies)
(v) Vivikta-sayyāsana (विविक्त-शय्यासन) → Vivikta (विविक्त) means lonely or solitary & Śayyāsana
(शय्यासन) meaning lying or sitting → sitting or sleeping in a lonely or isolated place, devoid of animate beings.
(vi) Kāya-kleśa (काय क्लेश) → Kleśa (क्लेश) means suffering misery & Kāya (काय) means body → tolerance of sufferings / mortification of the body as long as the mind is unperturbed

Internal (अभ्यन्तर तप):
(i) Prayaścitta (प्रयश्चित्त) → confession, repentance, expiation
(ii) Vinaya (विनय) → humility, reverence
(iii) Vaiyāvrata (वैयाव्रत) → service of the saints or worthy people
(iv) Svādhyāya (स्वाध्याय) → study of sacred texts
(v) Vyutsarga (व्युत्सर्ग) → giving up attachment to the body
(vi) Dhyāna (ध्यान) → concentration of mind


The Syādvāda (स्याद्वाद) doctrine of non-absolutism has seven postulations.
(i) Syād asti: exists from a certain perspective
(ii) Syād nāsti: does not exist from a certain perspective
(iii) Syād asti nāsti: something exists and does not exist from a certain perspective
(iv) Syād avaktavyam: indescribable or inexplicable from a certain perspective
(v) Syād asti avaktavyam: exists though it is indescribable from a certain perspective
(vi) Syād nāsti avaktavyam: does not exists though it is indescribable from a certain perspective
(vii) Syād asti nāsti avaktavyam: exists, does not exist & it is indescribable from a certain perspective.

There are seven specific types of viewpoints (naya नय ) accepted in Jain texts:
(i) figurative (naigama, नैगम) → This viewpoint analyses both specific and generic attributes
(ii) synthetic (saṃgraha, संग्रह) → This viewpoint looks for generic attributes in entities
(iii) distributive (vyavahāra, व्यवहार) → This viewpoint looks for specific attributes in entities
(iv) straight or linear (ṛjusūtra, ऋजुसूत्र) → This viewpoint looks at the present state of the entity
(v) literal (śabda, शब्द) → This viewpoint discriminates between numbers, gender etc of the entity
(vi) etymological (samabhirūdha, समभिरूध) → This viewpoint looks at the actual meaning of the word (rejects single meaning of the word)
(vii) determinant (evambhūta, एवम्भूत) → This viewpoint accepts unison of the word and its object (a teacher is only a teacher whilst teaching)

There are seven centres of energy within the human body as illustrated in the diagram below

Within the Jain universe, in the region of Jambūdvīpa (जम्बूद्वीप) there are 7 regions.
(i) Bhārata (rivers Gaṅgā and Sindhu)
(ii) Haimavanta (rivers Rohit and Rohitāsyā)
(iii) Hari (rivers Harit and Harikāntā)
(iv) Videha (rivers Sitā and Sitodā)
(v) Ramyaka (rivers Nārī and Narakāntā)
(vi) Hairaṇyavata (rivers Suvarṇakūlā and Rūpyakūlā)
(vii) Airāvata (rivers Raktā and Raktodā).

There are seven Naraka (नरक, “hells”) within the Jain cosmology as follows:
(i) First hell: ‘illuminated like jewels’ (ratnaprabhaa)
(ii) Second hell: ‘illuminated like gravel’ (sarkaraaprabhaa)
(iii) Third hell: ‘illuminated like sand’ (vaalukaaprabhaa)
(iv) Fourth hell: ‘illuminated like mud’ (pankaprabhaa)
(v) Fifth hell: ‘illuminated like smoke’ (dhumaprabhaa)
(vi) Sixth hell: ‘illuminated like darkness’ (tamahprabhaa)
(vii) Seventh hell: ‘illuminated like deepest darkness’ (tamastamah prabhaa).


Eight qualities indicative of Saṃyaktva (संयक्त्व, right faith) are as follows:

There are eight karmas according to the Jain Karma philosophy, subdivided into Ghāti karmas (soul defiling karmas) and Aghāti Karmas (does not veil the fundamental nature of the soul).

Mada (मद) or pride can be of eight types:
(i) jñāna-mada (pride in one’s knowledge)
(ii) pūjā-mada (pride in one’s worship)
(iii) kula-mada (pride of family)
(iv) jāti-mada (pride of caste)
(v) bala-mada (pride in one’s strength)
(vi) ṛddhi-mada (pride in one’s wealth)
(vii) tapas-mada (pride in one’s ascetic practices)
(viii) vapus-mada (pride in one’s beauty).

There are eight types of self-regulation and self-restraint within the Jain ascetic code of conduct called Aṣṭa Pravacanamāta (अष्ट प्रवचनमाता). Just as a mother looks after her child, these 8 restraints are like a mother to ensure the ascetic follows the code of conduct diligently comprising of 5 Samitis and 3 Guptis.

The 23rd Tirthankar, Lord Parsvanath had 8 chief disciples (Gaṇadhara गणधर ) as follows:
(i) Śubha
(ii) Śubhaghosa
(iii) Vaśistha
(iv) Brahmacāri
(v) Soma
(vi) Śridhara
(vii) Virbhadra
(viii) Yaśa

When a Tirthankar preaches in a Samavasaraṇa (समवसरण), eight prātihāryas (प्रातिहार्य) are always present:
(i) The Tirthankara is seated under an Ashoka tree
(ii) Tirthankara is seated on a throne (Simhäsana) studded with jewels and is made by the devas.
(iii) The devas gently stand either side of Tirthankara with a whisk (Chämara).
(iv) There are always three (triple canopy) Chatra (छत्र) above Tirthankara’s head.
(v) There is a divine halo behind the Tirthankara (bhä-mandal).
(vi) The devas play the wind instrument (Dundubhi).
(vii) Tirthankara’s language can be understood by all.
(viii) Gods shower flowers from the sky

One of the properties of matter (pudgala, पुद्गल) is sparśa (स्पर्श) which means touch. There are 8 types of touch as follows:
(i) smooth (kaṭhora)
(ii) dry (rūkṣa)
(iii) cold (śīta)
(iv) hot (uṣṇa)
(v) soft ( komala)
(vi) hard (snigdha)
(vii) light (laghu)
(viii) heavy (guru).

There are 8 types of Vyantara (व्यन्तर) Gods as follows:
(i) Piśāca (ii) Bhūta (iii) Yakṣa (iv) Rākṣasa (v) Kiṃnara (vi) Kiṃpuruṣa (vii) Mahoraga
(viii) Gandharva.


The nine tattvas (तत्त्व) fundamental principles of truth in Jainism are:

There are nine planets (graha, ग्रह) which are mentioned in the Bṛhat Śānti as follows:
(i) Surya (sun) (ii) Chandra (moon) (iii) Budha (Mercury) (iv) Shukra (Venus) (v) Rahu
(vi) Brihaspati (Jupiter) also known as Guru (vii) Angaraka (Mars) (vii) Shani (Saturn) (viii) Rahu
(ix) Ketu

The nine virtues Navpada of the Siddhacakra are:

The nine verses of the Navkar Mantra are the quintessence of Jain prayers.

Nine ways of worshipping are as follows:

The Navsmaran (नवस्मरण) holy recitations of the Swetambara Jain sect are as follows:
(i) Navkār Mantra
(ii) Uvasaggaharam Stotra
(iii) Santikaram Stotra
(iv) Tijaypahutta Stotra
(v) Namiuna Stotra
(vi) Ajit Śānti
(vii) Bhaktāmara Stotra
(viii) Kalyān Mandir Stotra
(ix) Bṛhat Śānti Stotra

The Nava-nidhi (नवनिधि) which are treasures or prosperity that a monarch or eminent personality is endowed with are:
a. Good planning and the establishment of towns and houses (naisarpa).
b. General knowledge of ploughing, mathematics, music, etc.
c. Art of clothing and dressmaking for men, women and even animals.
d. Having all fourteen ratnas described above.
e. Art of washing and dyeing cloth.
f. Knowledge of astrology and architecture, etc.
g. Knowledge of metallurgy.
h. Knowledge of warfare and weaponry.
i. Expertise in art, music, poetry, drama, etc

Nine restrictions for the proper observance of celibacy (brahmacarya, ब्रह्मचर्य) are as follows:

Nine types of darśana varaṇīya karma (दर्शन वरणीय) i.e. karmas that dimish our power of perception are:
1) Chakshu-Darshanavarniya (vision perception obscuring) karma
2) Achakshu-Darshanavarniya (non-vision perception obscuring) karma
3) Avadhi-Darshanavarniya (remote seeing-perception obscuring) karma
4) Kevali-Darshanavarniya (perfect perception obscuring) karma
5) Nidrā (light sleep producing) karma
6) Nidrā-nidrā (deep sleep producing) karma
7) Prachala (sound sleep producing) karma
8) Prachala-prachala (exceedingly intensive sleep producing) karma
9) Styanarddhi Nidra (somnambulistic sleep producing) karma

There are nine nokaṣāya (नोकषाय, quasi-passions) which lead to an influx of karmas as follows:
(i) Hāsya (हास्य) – jest, laughing at the misery of others, making jokes at the expense of others
(ii) Rati (रति) – pleasure in sensual activities
(iii) Arati (अरति) – displeasure or aversion towards spiritual activities
(iv) Śoka (शोक) – sorrow, grief
(v) Bhaya (भय) – fear
(vi) Jugupsā (जुगुप्सा) – disgust
(vii) Puruṣaveda (पुरुषवेद) – male sexual urge
(viii) Strīveda (स्त्रीवेद) – female sexual urge
(ix) Napuṃsakaveda (नपुंसकवेद) – sexual urge desires for both men and women (bi-sexual)


Das Lakshan Parva is the festival celebrated by the Digambara Jains after the Swetambara festival of Paryushan ends in which ten cardinal virtues are contemplated upon.
(i) Uttam Kshamā (उत्तम क्षमा) – forbearance, supreme forgiveness
(ii) Uttam Mārdava ( उत्तम मार्दव) – supreme modesty
(iii) Uttam Ārjava (उत्तम आर्जव) – straightforwardness
(iv) Uttam Shauch (उत्तम शौच) – supreme purity
(v) Uttam Satya (उत्तम सत्य) – absolute truth
(vi) Uttam Sanyam (उत्तम संयम) – supreme restraint
(vii) Uttam Tap (उत्तम तप) – supreme austerity
(viii) Uttam Tyāga (उत्तम त्याग) – supreme renunciation
(ix) Uttam Aakinchanya (उत्तम अकिंचन्य) – non-attachment
(x) Uttam Brahmcharya (उत्तम बह्मचर्य) – supreme celibacy

There are 10 ways for concentrating the mind on spirituality (Citta Samādhi, चित्त समाधि) as follows:

In Jainism, all locations where humans live have broadly been classified in two categories, namely, Karma Bhumi (कर्म भूमि) meaning ‘Land of Action’ and Akarm Bhumi (अकर्म भूमि) meaningLand of No Action’. In Akarma Bhumi humans do not have to work and all their needs are fulfilled by 10 types of Kalpavrikshas (wish-granting trees):


Lord Mahaveer has eleven gandharas (main disciples). They each had a certain doubt which Lord Mahaveer resolved.

There are 11 vows called Upāsaka pratimā (उपासक प्रतिमा) that householders need to adopt as follows:


There are 12 main Jain scriptures called Āgams as follows:

The Jain householder code of conduct prescribes 12 vows called Aṇuvrata (अणुव्रत). They are minor vows compared to the Mahavratas the ascetics have to follows.

There are 12 Bhāvanā (भावना) or pure reflections which can be the subject of contemplation or meditation.

12 Attributes of a Tirthankar are as follows:


Acharya Bhikshu stressed thirteen principles namely (i) 5 Mahavrats (ii) 5 Samitis (regulations) and (iii) Three Guptis (controls or restraints) for ascetics, and thus the order he founded was called Terāpanth.


There are fourteen stages of spiritual purification (Guṇasthāna, गुणस्थान).

There are fourteen Pūrva (पूर्व) or ancient scriptures, prior to Lord Mahaveer, which contained the essence of the entire Jain philosophy. They are now considered to be lost.

Parigraha (परिग्रह) refers to excessive obsession which could be either external (bahya-parigraha) or internal (abhyantara-parigraha). There are 14 types of internal parigraha specified as follows:

Lord Mahaveer’s mother, Trishlā mātā had 14 auspicious dreams according to the Swetāmbara sect.

The Bhaktāmara Stotra is composed in the Vasantatilaka metre in which each line of the 44 verses (or 48 verses in some sects) must have 14 letters or syllables as illustrated below for the first verse.

According to Jain cosmology, the height of the universe is 14 Rajju as illustrated below:


There are 15 regions (5 Bharat, 5 Airāvat and 5 Mahāvideha) within the Jain universe called Karmabhūmi (कर्मभूमि) where humans have to work for their living and from where liberation is possible. These regions are located with 2 and a half continents called Adhāidvipa centred around Jambudvipa.

As per Jain cosmology, within the Madhyaloka (मध्यलोक, middle world) the 15th continent is Nandīśvara dvīpa (नन्दीश्वर द्वीप) where celestial Gods come to celebrate auspicious Jain festivals


There are sixteen Goddesses of Wisdom or Learning called Vidyādevī (विद्यादेवी). They have been eulogised in the Santikaram Stotra.

Kaṣāya (कषाय) which means passions can be expounded in 16 levels depending on its intensity as follows:

In Jain cosmography, Mount Meru is at the centre of the Universe. It is known by 16 names as follows:

According to Digambaras, there are 16 heavens in kalpa (whereas Swetambaras believe there are 12)


Saṃyama (संयम, “control”) or self-restraint is expounded seventeen fold as follows:

Maraṇa (मरण) or death can be of 17 types as follows:


There are 18 different ways for the influx of karmas as expounded in the 18 Pāpasthānaka Sutra


Jñātādharmakathā (ज्ञाताधर्मकथा) is the 6th Āgam and it contains 19 chapters as follows:


There are 20 Tirthankaras currently present in the Mahāvideha (महाविदेह) region of the Madhyaloka (मध्यलोक, middle world) as follows:

There are 20 ways in which one can bind Tirthankar nāma (नाम) karma.


The 21st Tirthankar was Lord Naminath.


According to Acharya Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra, there are 22 parīṣaha (परीषह) or hardships/trials need to be endured with equanimity by a Jain ascetic. They are listed as follows:
(i) Kṣudhā (क्षुधा) → affliction of hunger
(ii) Tṛṣā (तृषा) → affliction of thirst
(iii) Śīta (शीत) → affliction of feeling cold
(iv) Uṣṇa (उष्ण)affliction of feeling hot
(v) Daṃśa (दंश) → affliction of being stung by insects
(vi) Acelaka (अचेलक) → affliction of nudity
(vii) Arati (अरति) → discontent, displeasure, dissatisfaction towards certain objects or surroundings
(viii) Iṭṭhi (इट्ठि) → affliction towards women
(ix) Caryā (चर्या) affliction of wandering
(x) Naiṣedhikī (नैषेधिकी) → affliction of inconvenient place for meditation
(xi) Śayā (शया) → affliction of lodging (sleeping such as hard surface)
(xii) Ākrośa (आक्रोश) → affliction of abuse, blame, imprecations
(xiii) Vadha (वध) → affliction of injury, beating, destruction
(xiv) Yācanā (याचना) → affliction of begging
(xv) Alabhā (अलभा) → affliction in seeking alms
(xvi) Roga (रोग) → affliction of illness, disease
(xvii) Tṛṇasparśa (तृणस्पर्श) → affliction from being pricked by thorns
(xviii) Mala (मल) → affliction from personal uncleanliness
(xix) Satkāra (सत्कार) → affliction of respectful or disrespectful treatment
(xx) Prajñā (प्रज्ञा) → affliction of having the pride of knowledge / wisdom
(xxi) Ajnāna (अज्नान) → affliction of being ignorant
(xxii) Saṃyaktva (संयक्त्व) → affliction of not having the right belief in the tenets of Jainism

Pudgala (पुद्गल, matter) as per the Jain philosophy has the following attributes: Touch, Taste, Smell and Colour (as an example red colour can transform to yellow, etc). There are 22 transformations which can occur as depicted below:


Sūtrakṛtāṅga सूत्रकृताङ्ग (also known in Prakrit as Sūyagaḍaṃga सूयगडंग) is the second agama of the 12 main aṅgās of the Jain Svetambara canon. It has 23 chapters.

23 Tirthankaras (all except Lord Adinath) had the knowledge of the 11 Aagam scriptures in their previous birth. Lord Adinath had the knowledge of the 14 Purvas.


During each ascending and descending time cycle, 24 Tirthankaras are born and propagate the Jain philosophy and the path to liberation.


Upādhyāya has 25 attributes. There are two different versions on how the number of 25 is accounted:
(a) They have knowledge of the 11 Agams + 14 Purvas
11 Angas
(i) Aachārang (आचारांग)
(ii) Sutrakratāng (सूत्रकृतांग)
(iii) Sthānang (स्थानांग)
(iv) Samvāyāng (समवायांग)
(v) Vyākhyāpragyapti Anga (व्याख्याप्रज्ञप्ति)
(vi) Gyātrikathā Anga (ज्ञातृकथा)
(vii) Upāsakādhyayan (उपासकाद्ध्ययन)
(viii) Antahkritdashāng (अन्तः क्रतदशांग)
(ix) Anutarotpādak dashāng (अनुत्तरोत्पादक दशांग)
(x) Sutravipāka (सूत्रविपाक)
(xi) Prashnvyākarana (प्रश्न व्याकरण)

14 Purvas
(i) Utpād Poorv (उत्पादपूर्व)
(ii) Agrāyani Poorv (अग्रायणी)
(iii) Veeryavād Poorv (वीर्यवाद)
(iv) Astināsti Pravād Poorv (आस्तिनास्ति प्रवाद)
(v) Gyān Pravād Poorv (ज्ञान प्रवाद)U
(vi) Karma Pravād Poorv (कर्म प्रवाद)
(vii) Satpravād Poorv (सत प्रवाद)
(viii) Atma Pravād Poorv (आत्म प्रवाद)
(ix) Pratyākhyān Poorv (प्रत्याख्यान)
(x) Vidyānuvād Poorv (विद्यानुवाद)
(xi) Kalyān Poorv (कल्याण पूर्व)
(xii) Prānvād Poorv (प्राणवाद)
(xiii) Kriyā Vishāl Poorv (क्रिया विशाल)
(xiv) Lok Bindusār Poorv (लोक बिन्दुसार)

(b) Knowledge of:
11 Angas mentioned above
+ 1 scripture listing 70 ways to observe code of conduct (Carana sittari)
+ 1 scripture listing 70 ways to observe and perform rituals (Karana sittari)
+ 12 Upāṅga (उपाङ्ग):
(i) Uvavāiya (उववाइय सुत्तं)
(ii) Rājapraśnīya (राजप्रश्नीय) (Rāyapaseṇaiya)
(iii) Jīvābhigamasūtra (जीवाभिगमसूत्र)
(iv) Prajñāpana (प्रज्ञापन)
(v) Sūryaprajñapti (सूर्यप्रज्ञप्ति)
(vi) Jambūdvīpaprajñapti (जम्बूद्वीपप्रज्ञप्ति)
(vii) Candapaṇṇatti (चन्दपण्णत्ति)
(viii) Niryāvaliyao (Nirayärvali Sutra)
(ix) Kappavaḍaṃsiyāo (Kalpä-vatansikä Sutra)
(x) Pupphiyao (Pushpikä Sutra)
(xi) Pupphaculiyao (Pushpa-chulikä Sutra)
(xii) Vaṇhidasāo (Vrashnidashä Sutra)


The Digambara sect believes there were 26 Āgams:
12 Anga-pravishtha Āgam + 14 Anga-bāhya Āgam
They were forgotten with the passage of time. Thus, they do not believe the existing Āgams as authentic. Instead, they follow texts written by eminent Acharyas and commentaries on these texts (Shatakhandāgam, Kashāy-pāhuda, Dhavalā-tikā, Mahā-dhavalā-tikā, etc).


Jain philosophy believes that soul is eternal – it does not have a beginning nor an end. How is it that it is said that Lord Mahaveer had 27 lives prior to achieving liberation? It is because after the seeds of right faith were sowed in Lord Mahaveer’s soul, it took 27 lives to achieve liberation.


Mohanīya (मोहनीय) karma is the king of all karmas as it is the most difficult to eradicate. It deceives and pollutes the soul’s natural quality of bliss and causes the soul to become desirous and creates ignorance / illusion of what is not conducive for the soul. There are two categories which all sum to 28 types:
(i) Darshan Mohaniya: deludes proper understanding of reality and its own nature.
Prevents right faith. There are three types.

(ii) Chäritra Mohaniya: deludes proper conduct and generates various passions within.
There are 25 types

Watch this space for more updates…

1. Internet
2. Wisdomlib
3. Samavayangasuttam by Ashok Kumar Singh
4. Compedium of Jainism

I seek pardon for any erroneous or misleading information due to the authors ignorance

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